The distillation allows separation of a mixture
The concept that underlies the process of distillation is the separation of a mixture of two pure liquids with different boiling points.: on an industrial scale this process occurs through the distillation columns.
The mixture is heated to a temperature that is placed between their boiling points for the separation of phases: there are many uses of distillation plants in the chemical industry.
For example, consider a mixture of water and ethanol: water boils at 100 ° C and ethanol of about 83 ° C but if you proceed to heat the mixture 92 ° C, the ethanol will boil and become steam (which will be collected and condensed), while the water remains liquid.
The distillation columns are composed of a series of stacked plates within which the liquid enters from one or more points. The liquid flows over the plates while the gas phase flows through the holes in the plates.
In distillation columns and liquid and gaseous phase in contact several times in order to recover the heat of the gas phase, which can then sell part of its energy to the liquid phase still to be heated.
The distillation columns have various industrial applications and are designed on the basis of boiling points of components of mixtures to be separated.
The characteristics of the mixture it will determine the construction of distillation columns:
-the number of stages;
-the number of dishes;
The performance of distillation columns are affected by the extent and condition of fluid flow to separate.
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